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Welcome to the world’s largest collection of free, manually labeled human brain image data!
Please cite the following article and this website when making use of Mindboggle-101 data:
Arno Klein, Jason Tourville. Frontiers in Brain Imaging Methods. 6:171. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00171

See the README, labels, the CHANGELOG, and MD5SUMS,
which describe the labeled nifti volumes (nii), vtk surfaces (vtk), and FreeSurfer files (mgh, etc.).
Except where noted, all data are licensed under a Creative Commons License: CC_license

Mindboggle-101 atlases

Each of the 101 manually labeled individual brain surfaces and volumes is an atlas,
a labeled or annotated brain image that can be used in registration-based labeling.
We have combined the individual labels to create aggregate atlases here as well.

Volume atlases

Cortical surface atlases

Mindboggle-101 templates

A template is an unlabeled image used as a reference or standard, often for
registering other images to each other. Each one of the image volumes and
surfaces below was constructed by combining the images from multiple subjects.
ANTS brain templates were made with,
and FreeSurfer templates with

Brain volumes: ANTS nonlinear average templates (nii)

Head volumes: ANTS nonlinear average templates (nii)

Cortical surfaces: FreeSurfer nonlinear average templates (tif)

Mindboggle-101: Individual, manually labeled brain surfaces and volumes

The Mindboggle-101 dataset includes labeled anatomical regions for 101 healthy subjects.
The manually edited cortical labels follow sulcus landmarks according to the
Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT) protocol (reference at top).
  • OASIS-TRT-20 cortical labels [nii, nii (MNI152), vtk, mgh]:

    All 20 subjects from the OASIS Test-Retest sample OASIS-TRT www

  • OASIS-TRT-20 whole-brain labels [nii, nii (MNI152)]

    The cortical labels above plus manual subcortex by Neuromorphometrics CC_license_nond

  • NKI-RS-22 cortical labels [nii, nii (MNI152), vtk, mgh]:

    22 subjects from the Nathan Klein Institute / Rockland Sample NKI-RS www

  • NKI-TRT-20 cortical labels [nii, nii (MNI152), vtk, mgh]:

    20 subjects from the Nathan Klein Institute / Test-Retest Sample NKI-TRT www

  • MMRR-21 cortical labels [nii, nii (MNI152), vtk, mgh]:

    All 21 subjects in the Multi-Modal MRI Reproducibility Resource MMRR www

  • Extra-18 cortical labels [nii, nii (MNI152), vtk, mgh]:
    • HLN-12: All 12 subjects from the Human Language Network study
    • MMRR-3T7T-2: 2 subjects acquired like MMRR-21 (multimodal + 7T scans: MMRR www)
    • Colin27-1: Colin Holmes template (average of 27 scans)
    • Twins-2: 2 identical twins, including AK
    • Afterthought-1: 1 brain imager, SG
  • fsaverage [nii and mgh]:

    The figures above show the DKT cortical labeling protocol with sulcus landmarks on FreeSurfer’s fsaverage surface.

Other (non-Mindboggle-101) templates and manually labeled brains

The following images are not from the Mindboggle-101 data above, and the manual labels are not the same
as those of the DKT labeling protocol used for the Mindboggle-101 data above
(Warning: These labeled brains were used for evaluating registrations; I cannot vouch for their anatomical accuracy.):

Tissue-segmented templates: created by Nicholas Tustison for use with

Templates: built with with images from 2009 evaluation (nii)

Atlases: manually labeled volumes from 2009 evaluation (nii)

  • CUMC-12: 12 labeled brains (2009)
  • IBSR-18: 18 labeled brains (2009)
  • MGH-10: 10 labeled brains (2009)